Approximately 3.1 million Australians aged 14 or over accessed the internet via a mobile phone handset during December 2010, as compared to 1.9 million during December 2009.  Australian Law Reform Commission, National Classification Scheme Review, ALRC Issues Paper 40 (2011). Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. the interlinking of computing and ICTs, communication networks, and media content that has occurred with the development and popularisation of the Internet, and the convergent products, services and activities that have emerged in the digital media space.  Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Submission CI 2463. It’s the root of so many other trends like programmatic, addressable, social TV, and more. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. We pay our respects to the people, the cultures and the elders past, present and emerging. The ICT revolution, which has fundamentally transformed the conditions for creating, storing, accessing, distributing and reusing information and data. 1. While television has long operated through a time-based regulatory framework (as programs with certain types of content—violence, nudity, sexual references—cannot be shown before particular times), and cinemas and video store employees can make age assessments or request ID, of those purchasing tickets or hiring DVDs, age verification is far more ad hoc and difficult on the internet. Agencies, Organisations and Individuals Consulted, Appendix 2. Global Media Journal – Indian Edition/ISSN 2249-5835 Winter Issue / December 2011 Vol. Jenkins (2006:3), on the other hand, defines convergence as ‘flow of content across multiple media platforms’, suggesting that media audiences nowadays play a crucial role in creating and distributing content, and convergence therefore has to be examined in terms of social, as well as technological changes within the society. 3.7 In their book Media Convergence: Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life, Graham Meikle and Sherman Young observe that convergence can be understood in four dimensions: 3.8 While technological change is a constant feature of modern economies, the changes associated with convergence, digitisation and networking have been seen as providing the basis for a new ‘techno-economic paradigm’.  Arts Law Centre of Australia, Submission CI 2490. The media convergence is something that the suppliers should offer cheap and not expensive to swindle the public. Nearly 15.1 million Australians aged 14 or over (83% of the population) went online during the December quarter of 2010, and 71% of internet users went online at least once a day. Social Media and the Convergence of Marketing and PR.  Inquiry into the Australian Broadcasting System, Australian Broadcasting: A Report on the Structure of the Australian Broadcasting System and Associated Matters (1976). textual—the re-use and remixing of media into what has been termed a ‘transmedia’ model, where stories and media content (for example, sounds, images, written text) are dispersed across multiple media platforms. And as we search for more and more ways to create things that would make our tasks easier, media convergence is bound to occur. Back around 1980, Nicolas Negroponte -- Director of the Media Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) -- drew the following diagram that features three overlapping rings to represent the industries of computing, (tele)communications and publishing/broadcasting content. What else cannot be done by domestic movies. 3.18 Convergence of media platforms and services is now a feature of all established media, as well as being a core feature of new media. 3.32 Associate Professor Axel Bruns has referred to the rise of the ‘produser’, or the internet user who is both a user and a creator of online content.  For all of these media organisations, their digital content services are now very much at the heart of their news operations, and it no longer makes sense to maintain platform-specific organisational practices. The Argument Against Convergence. Most theorists agree that in general terms convergence means ‘coming together of two or more things’, however a variety of different arguments have been put forward in an attempt to define what exactly is coming together (Grant and Wilkinson, 2009). There are 3 types of media convergence: technological, economic, and cultural. The rise of knowledge-based communities and global knowledge networks, where information can be easily shared and re-used, and where collaboration can occur that is not reliant upon physical co-presence in particular geographical locations. The growing speed and intensity of innovation, and the increasing diversity of sources of innovation, including users themselves as co-creators of new or improved products and services. The top five online news sites were news.com.au, ninemsn.com.au, smh.com.au, abc.net.au and theage.com.au. Films, Television Programs and Computer Games, Determining what content should be classified, Films, television programs and computer games, Content to be classified by the Classification Board, 8.  World Intellectual Property Organization, World Intellectual Property Indicators (2010), 33. Media convergence has become one of the main types of data and information sources when considering internet usage today. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the common management, the accountability and enforcement, because responsibility more effective than legislation to govern ( Weber，2011 cited Whitmore et al, 2014). The ALRC expects that such trends will intensify, as more and more Australians acquire access to high-speed broadband services. I ndividuals want control (or to feel in control) over their media, which is part of the reason why complete convergence is not possible. The major incumbent industries are replaced as engines of growth by new emerging ones; the established technologies and the prevailing paradigm are made obsolete and transformed by the new ones; many of the working and management skills that had been successful in the past become outdated and inefficient … Such changes in the economy are very disturbing of the social status quo.. David and Foray estimate that the stock of intangible capital first exceeded that of tangible capital in the United States in 1973, and has continued to grow since then. Most of the people who claim that these things don’t work fail because of THEIR failure to do the work – to adopt a new discipline – to FOCUS and COMMIT. This included 60% of 5–8 year olds, and 96% of 12–14 year olds. Security and information governance are converging across the enterprise market and are poised to make organizations more efficient while improving operations and … Consequences of this trend can be viewed as both positive and negative.  Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Join the Conversation, Annual Report 2010-2011, 55. The emergent 21st century framework is one of convergent social media, characterised by dramatically reduced barriers to user participation through easy-to-use Web 2.0 technologies, and the resulting blurring of the producer/consumer distinction as there is ubiquitous user-created content accessible across multiple media platforms.. 3.36 This presents a new challenge for media classification policy, of how to design regulations that distinguish between content that is produced by large-scale organisations on a commercial basis, and user-created content. Hollywood movies and American television programs were a feature of the global media landscape for most of the 20th century, and this led to extended discussions worldwide about the risks of cultural domination and ‘cultural imperialism’. 3.50 It was estimated that, in the 12 months prior to April 2009, 2.2 million children (79%) aged 5–14 years reported accessing the internet, which was an increase from 65% in 2006. Media is consumed and offered extensively today in many different types of formats. From screenwriter to director, well, the span is not very large.  Australian Communications and Media Authority, Digital Australians—Expectations About Media Content in a Converging Media Environment: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Report (2011), 7. With the introduction of digital code however the situation changed rapidly and opened new possibilities for media creation and convergence, for example, new forms of interaction between producers and consumers. Supporting this argument, Deuze cited in Erdal (2011) suggests that media convergence should be viewed as ‘cooperation and collaboration’ between previously unconnected media forms and platforms. field of journalism is moving away from maintaining separate newsrooms staffed with reporters who specialize in that media only. Back before media convergence, content would be gathered first hand by reporters or researchers from each company, but because of media convergence companies are gathering information via social media (Australian Government, 2012).  T Flew, New Media: An Introduction (3rd ed, 2008), 22.  K Crawford and C Lumby, The Adaptive Moment: A Fresh Approach to Convergent Media in Australia (2011), 40. It was noted that credit/debit cards are widely available to people under the age of 18, and that any more rigorous form of age verification had the potential to raise significant privacy concerns.. 3.19 At the same time, media convergence has increased the tendency towards media globalisation. If old consumers were isolated individuals, the new consumers are more socially connected. 3.35 The OECD also referred to the wider social implications of the rise of user-created content in these terms: The Internet as a new creative outlet has altered the economics of information production, increased the democratisation of media production and led to changes in the nature of communication and social relationships (sometimes referred to as the ‘rise—or return—of the amateurs’). The growing share of intangible capital—including investment in education and training, research and development, and information and coordination as well as health expenditures—as compared to tangible capital in total capital formation. 3.20 Media convergence has major policy consequences. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) has observed that any definition of media content for purposes of classification: would need to be carefully drafted to ensure that other types of online audiovisual content (such as user-generated, semi-professional content and short-duration clips) are not inadvertently captured by … the new Act. Importantly, such devices also include parental locks, giving parents greater potential to control the access that their children have to material accessed from such platforms. Nowadays, people talk about not having enough time to everything they want in a day or doing more than one thing at one time. Approximately 3.1 million Australians aged 14 or over accessed the int… Digital media convergence enables news to be delivered quickly to the public. 3.29 In discussing the rise of the knowledge-based economy, Paul David and Dominique Foray relate the acceleration of knowledge production to the interrelationship between four developments: 3.30 The media industries, broadly defined, have been at the centre of these developments.  A Bruns, Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage (2008).  Charles Leadbeater and Paul Miller have referred to such trends as the ‘pro-am revolution’ where the tools of content creation become cheaper and simpler to use, thereby blurring distinctions between ‘amateurs’ and ‘experts’. **Media convergence** is a phenomenon that interconnects or merges the information technology with communication technology. As it generates losers as well as winners, and disrupts the institutional status quo associated with established institutional and social arrangements, there is invariably conflict and disagreement in the process of social adaptation to technological and economic change. The new trend is towards media convergence fi where different media formats come together to "tell the story" in different and creative new  Deloitte, Technology, Media & Telecommunications Predictions 2011 (2011), 22. Existing regulatory arrangements built around industry ‘silos’ are challenged by new technologies, market structures and business models. 3.11 The Convergence Review has also drawn attention to the extent to which convergence is having a transformational impact on media and communications industries, and the need for radical changes to the policy framework in response to such transformations: Australia’s communications sectors are undergoing profound change as a result of convergence.  In particular, many respondents pointed to the need for a more platform-neutral approach to media content regulation and classification that would be based upon content rather than on delivery platform. Convergence is hands-down the most critical, disruptive trend in our industry today.  For an argument of this nature, see J Tunstall, The Media Were American: U.S. Mass Media in Decline (2008). 3.42 This is not to say that traditional television viewing habits will disappear. You'd have to either start over or demote to do much of anything.  C Perez, ‘Technological Revolutions and Techno-Economic Paradigms’ (2010) 34 Cambridge Journal of Economics , 185–202. 3.49 While expectations that the media continue to meet community standards remain important, the distinctions between media distribution methods are now less clear-cut. 3.41 The significance of PVRs is that they enable households to access programs of their choice that are less dependent upon the scheduling decisions of the television networks. 3.24 What has changed has been the extent to which digital media content can be sourced, distributed and accessed from any point in the world to any other point in the world. If it's the latter situation, I'm not sure why you'd be trying to provide AD/DS remotely other than for an entirely terminal services domain.  In the week of 3–9 July, 2011, for example, there was only one imported television program in the top 20 list—the British drama series Downton Abbey-while programs that were topping the TV ratings included local productions such as Winners and Losers, Masterchef and Australia’s Got Talent. , 3.33 The rise of user-created content is associated with broader trends away from a 20th century mass communications model, characterised by large-scale distribution, media content largely produced and distributed by media professionals, and a clear distinction between media producers and consumers. technological—the combination of computing, communications and content around networked digital media platforms; industrial—the engagement of established media institutions in the digital media space, and the rise of digitally-based companies such as Google, Apple, Microsoft and others as significant media content providers; social—the rise of social network media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, and the growth of user-created content; and. Those 20 % of the human population who see lemonade . Faster speed would not give you faster delivery to your clients. 3.34 The OECD identified user-created content as a ‘significant disruptive force … [that] creates both opportunities and challenges for established market participants and their strategies’, further arguing that: The more immediate economic impacts in terms of growth, entry of new firms and employment are currently with ICT goods and services providers and newly forming [user-created content] platforms. This report also indicated that benefits to households, business and government arising from the use of the internet to access, operate, purchase and deliver goods, services and information were valued at about $80 billion in 2010.. One question that needs to be asked, however, is whether or not these recent developments are beneficial for the society and the industry itself. The idea of transition from analogue media to digital media stands at the core of media convergence debate. It is embodied by the three C's: computing, communication and content. media markets have become more international, and national regulations may not be compatible with these international media and communications markets. This is a term developed by innovation economists to refer to 50-year cycles of changes to the technological and knowledge base of societies. Nowadays the power to control media industry is concentrated in the hands of private owners and relatively small number of big media corporations. Phone +61 7 3248 1224  This issue was raised by Lin, Submission CI 2476 and CI 2525; I Graham, Submission CI 2507; J Trevaskis, Submission CI 2493; and A Hightower, Submission CI 2511. In 2009, 92% of child internet users accessed the internet from home, 86% accessed it from school, and 45% from public libraries and internet cafes.. Queensland 4003. Via the above diagram, Negroponte illustrated that in 1980 there was relatively little overlap between the computing, communications and co… 3.22 The globalisation of media platforms, content and services is also a critical feature of the convergent media environment. Newspapers, magazines, audiovisual media content, music and film are increasingly distributed and consumed online, in environments that are both public in terms of the networked platforms from which they are accessed, and private in terms of their consumption in the home rather than in public places. 3.23 At the same time, local audiences have frequently displayed a preference for culturally relevant local media content where it is available.  G Dyer, ‘Viewers turn to digital channels’ at 8 December 2011.  Australian Communications and Media Authority, Emerging Business Models in the Digital Economy: The Mobile Applications Market (2011), 15. For example, you now have the ability to watch television or movies on your smartphones. 3.31 An important shift in the media associated with convergence is the rise of user-created content, and a shift in the nature of media users from audiences to participants. Respondents questioned assumptions that one medium has more effect on media users than another and should therefore be subject to more stringent forms of content regulation. As a result, certain segments of the audience arguably remain neglected and unable to fully participate in the new media culture. In a 1976 report into Australian broadcasting, it was observed that: The public own the airwaves … [and] since frequencies are scarce, and the broadcast media are influential, to grant a broadcast licence is to bestow a privilege. 2. In describing the resulting internationalisation of content distribution in relation to the mobile applications (‘apps’) market, the ACMA observed that ‘the mobile applications market functions on both a national and global scale, and this has implications for regulation in Australia … App stores … are all based overseas … [and] app developers are also based in multiple international jurisdictions.’, 3.26 In the 21st century, a range of network-based media platforms and services operate on a global scale in real time since, as the OECD has observed, ‘the Internet has achieved global interconnection without the development of any international regulatory regime’..  H Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (2006), 18–19. 3.16 Associated with rapidly increasing internet usage by consumers and business is the digitisation of all media products and services. With the help of social networking sites, the public can interact with the media in a much more efficient way. The choice of devices for accessing the internet and 3G and wireless broadband networks is also giving users flexibility in how and where they consume media’..  See ALRC Classification Discussion Forum, at 18 November 2011.  As well as commanding the largest share of media consumption and advertising revenue, television is a significant driver of other media content creation. It entails a shift away from platform-specific modes of content regulation, premised upon the structural separation of industries and content into particular technological ‘silos’, that have been the basis of media policy in Australia and elsewhere: Whilst technology has eroded the traditional divisions between free‑to‑air (FTA) television and the internet, newspapers and websites, radio and streaming services, our policy and regulation is still based on the industry and service structures of the early 1990s.. This privilege carries with it an obligation to provide the public with programs which meet the standards it expects..